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vue 1

vue

Vue.js API

Global Config

Vue.config is an object containing Vue’s global configurations. You can modify its properties listed below before bootstrapping your application:

debug

  • Type: Boolean

  • Default: false

  • Usage:

    Vue.config.debug = true

    When in debug mode, Vue will:

    1. Print stack traces for all warnings.

    2. Make all anchor nodes visible in the DOM as Comment nodes. This makes it easier to inspect the structure of the rendered result.

    Debug mode is only available in development build.

delimiters

  • Type: Array<String>

  • Default: ["{{", "}}"]

  • Usage:

    // ES6 template string style
    Vue.config.delimiters = ['${', '}']

    Change the plain text interpolation delimiters.

unsafeDelimiters

  • Type: Array<String>

  • Default: ["{{{", "}}}"]

  • Usage:

    // make it look more dangerous
    Vue.config.unsafeDelimiters = ['{!!', '!!}']

    Change the raw HTML interpolation delimiters.

silent

  • Type: Boolean

  • Default: false

  • Usage:

    Vue.config.silent = true

    Suppress all Vue.js logs and warnings.

async

  • Type: Boolean

  • Default: true

  • Usage:

    Vue.config.async = false

    When async mode is off, Vue will perform all DOM updates synchronously upon detecting data change. This may help with debugging in some scenarios, but could also cause degraded performance and affect the order in which watcher callbacks are called. async: false is not recommended in production.

devtools

  • Type: Boolean

  • Default: true (false in production builds)

  • Usage:

    // make sure to set this synchronously immediately after loading Vue
    Vue.config.devtools = true

    Configure whether to allow vue-devtools inspection. This option’s default value is true in development builds and false in production builds. You can set it to true to enable inspection for production builds.

Global API

Vue.extend( options )

  • Arguments:

    • {Object} options
  • Usage:

    Create a “subclass” of the base Vue constructor. The argument should be an object containing component options.

    The special cases to note here are el and data options - they must be functions when used with Vue.extend().

    <div id="mount-point"></div>
    // create reusable constructor
    var Profile = Vue.extend({
      template: '<p>{{firstName}} {{lastName}} aka {{alias}}</p>'
    })
    // create an instance of Profile
    var profile = new Profile({
      data: {
        firstName: 'Walter',
        lastName: 'White',
        alias: 'Heisenberg'
      }
    })
    // mount it on an element
    profile.$mount('#mount-point')

    Will result in:

    <p>Walter White aka Heisenberg</p>
  • See also: Components

Vue.nextTick( callback )

  • Arguments:

    • {Function} callback
  • Usage:

    Defer the callback to be executed after the next DOM update cycle. Use it immediately after you’ve changed some data to wait for the DOM update.

    // modify data
    vm.msg = 'Hello'
    // DOM not updated yet
    Vue.nextTick(function () {
      // DOM updated
    })
  • See also: Async Update Queue

Vue.set( object, key, value )

  • Arguments:

    • {Object} object
    • {String} key
    • {*} value
  • Returns: the set value.

  • Usage:

    Set a property on an object. If the object is reactive, ensure the property is created as a reactive property and trigger view updates. This is primarily used to get around the limitation that Vue cannot detect property additions.

  • See also: Reactivity in Depth

Vue.delete( object, key )

  • Arguments:

    • {Object} object
    • {String} key
  • Usage:

    Delete a property on an object. If the object is reactive, ensure the deletion triggers view updates. This is primarily used to get around the limitation that Vue cannot detect property deletions, but you should rarely need to use it.

  • See also: Reactivity in Depth

Vue.directive( id, [definition] )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} id
    • {Function | Object} [definition]
  • Usage:

    Register or retrieve a global directive.

    // register
    Vue.directive('my-directive', {
      bind: function () {},
      update: function () {},
      unbind: function () {}
    })
    
    // register (simple function directive)
    Vue.directive('my-directive', function () {
      // this will be called as `update`
    })
    
    // getter, return the directive definition if registered
    var myDirective = Vue.directive('my-directive')
  • See also: Custom Directives

Vue.elementDirective( id, [definition] )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} id
    • {Object} [definition]
  • Usage:

    Register or retrieve a global element directive.

    // register
    Vue.elementDirective('my-element', {
      bind: function () {},
      // element directives do not use `update`
      unbind: function () {}
    })
    
    // getter, return the directive definition if registered
    var myDirective = Vue.elementDirective('my-element')
  • See also: Element Directives

Vue.filter( id, [definition] )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} id
    • {Function | Object} [definition]
  • Usage:

    Register or retrieve a global filter.

    // register
    Vue.filter('my-filter', function (value) {
      // return processed value
    })
    
    // two way filter
    Vue.filter('my-filter', {
      read: function () {},
      write: function () {}
    })
    
    // getter, return the filter if registered
    var myFilter = Vue.filter('my-filter')
  • See also: Custom Filter

Vue.component( id, [definition] )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} id
    • {Function | Object} [definition]
  • Usage:

    Register or retrieve a global component.

    // register an extended constructor
    Vue.component('my-component', Vue.extend({ /* ... */ }))
    
    // register an options object (automatically call Vue.extend)
    Vue.component('my-component', { /* ... */ })
    
    // retrieve a registered component (always return constructor)
    var MyComponent = Vue.component('my-component')
  • See also: Components.

Vue.transition( id, [hooks] )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} id
    • {Object} [hooks]
  • Usage:

    Register or retrieve a global transition hooks object.

    // register
    Vue.transition('fade', {
      enter: function () {},
      leave: function () {}
    })
    
    // retrieve registered hooks
    var fadeTransition = Vue.transition('fade')
  • See also: Transitions.

Vue.partial( id, [partial] )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} id
    • {String} [partial]
  • Usage:

    Register or retrieve a global template partial string.

    // register
    Vue.partial('my-partial', '<div>Hi</div>')
    
    // retrieve registered partial
    var myPartial = Vue.partial('my-partial')
  • See also: Special Elements - <partial>.

Vue.use( plugin, [options] )

  • Arguments:

    • {Object | Function} plugin
    • {Object} [options]
  • Usage:

    Install a Vue.js plugin. If the plugin is an Object, it must expose an install method. If it is a function itself, it will be treated as the install method. The install method will be called with Vue as the argument.

  • See also: Plugins.

Vue.mixin( mixin )

  • Arguments:

    • {Object} mixin
  • Usage:

    Apply a mixin globally, which affects every Vue instance created afterwards. This can be used by plugin authors to inject custom behavior into components. Not recommended in application code.

  • See also: Global Mixins

Options / Data

data

  • Type: Object | Function

  • Restriction: Only accepts Function when used in a component definition.

  • Details:

    The data object for the Vue instance. Vue.js will recursively convert its properties into getter/setters to make it “reactive”. The object must be plain: native objects, existing getter/setters and prototype properties are ignored. It is not recommended to observe complex objects.

    Once the instance is created, the original data object can be accessed as vm.$data. The Vue instance also proxies all the properties found on the data object.

    Properties that start with _ or $ will not be proxied on the Vue instance because they may conflict with Vue’s internal properties and API methods. You will have to access them as vm.$data._property.

    When defining a component, data must be declared as a function that returns the initial data object, because there will be many instances created using the same definition. If we still use a plain object for data, that same object will be shared by reference across all instance created! By providing a data function, every time a new instance is created, we can simply call it to return a fresh copy of the initial data.

    If required, a deep clone of the original object can be obtained by passing vm.$data through JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(...)).

  • Example:

    var data = { a: 1 }
    
    // direct instance creation
    var vm = new Vue({
      data: data
    })
    vm.a // -> 1
    vm.$data === data // -> true
    
    // must use function when in Vue.extend()
    var Component = Vue.extend({
      data: function () {
        return { a: 1 }
      }
    })
  • See also: Reactivity in Depth.

props

  • Type: Array | Object

  • Details:

    A list/hash of attributes that are exposed to accept data from the parent component. It has a simple Array-based syntax and an alternative Object-based syntax that allows advanced configurations such as type checking, custom validation and default values.

  • Example:

    // simple syntax
    Vue.component('props-demo-simple', {
      props: ['size', 'myMessage']
    })
    
    // object syntax with validation
    Vue.component('props-demo-advanced', {
      props: {
        // just type check
        size: Number,
        // type check plus other validations
        name: {
          type: String,
          required: true,
          // warn if not two way bound
          twoWay: true
        }
      }
    })
  • See also: Props

propsData

1.0.22+

  • Type: Object

  • Restriction: only respected in instance creation via new.

  • Details:

    Pass props to an instance during its creation. This is primarily intended to make unit testing easier.

  • Example:

    var Comp = Vue.extend({
      props: ['msg'],
      template: '<div>{{ msg }}</div>'
    })
    
    var vm = new Comp({
      propsData: {
        msg: 'hello'
      }
    })

computed

  • Type: Object

  • Details:

    Computed properties to be mixed into the Vue instance. All getters and setters have their this context automatically bound to the Vue instance.

  • Example:

    var vm = new Vue({
      data: { a: 1 },
      computed: {
        // get only, just need a function
        aDouble: function () {
          return this.a * 2
        },
        // both get and set
        aPlus: {
          get: function () {
            return this.a + 1
          },
          set: function (v) {
            this.a = v - 1
          }
        }
      }
    })
    vm.aPlus   // -> 2
    vm.aPlus = 3
    vm.a       // -> 2
    vm.aDouble // -> 4
  • See also:

methods

  • Type: Object

  • Details:

    Methods to be mixed into the Vue instance. You can access these methods directly on the VM instance, or use them in directive expressions. All methods will have their this context automatically bound to the Vue instance.

  • Example:

    var vm = new Vue({
      data: { a: 1 },
      methods: {
        plus: function () {
          this.a++
        }
      }
    })
    vm.plus()
    vm.a // 2
  • See also: Methods and Event Handling

watch

  • Type: Object

  • Details:

    An object where keys are expressions to watch and values are the corresponding callbacks. The value can also be a string of a method name, or an Object that contains additional options. The Vue instance will call $watch() for each entry in the object at instantiation.

  • Example:

    var vm = new Vue({
      data: {
        a: 1
      },
      watch: {
        'a': function (val, oldVal) {
          console.log('new: %s, old: %s', val, oldVal)
        },
        // string method name
        'b': 'someMethod',
        // deep watcher
        'c': {
          handler: function (val, oldVal) { /* ... */ },
          deep: true
        }
      }
    })
    vm.a = 2 // -> new: 2, old: 1
  • See also: Instance Methods - vm.$watch

Options / DOM

el

  • Type: String | HTMLElement | Function

  • Restriction: only accepts type Function when used in a component definition.

  • Details:

    Provide the Vue instance an existing DOM element to mount on. It can be a CSS selector string, an actual HTMLElement, or a function that returns an HTMLElement. Note that the provided element merely serves as a mounting point; it will be replaced if a template is also provided, unless replace is set to false. The resolved element will be accessible as vm.$el.

    When used in Vue.extend, a function must be provided so each instance gets a separately created element.

    If this option is available at instantiation, the instance will immediately enter compilation; otherwise, the user will have to explicitly call vm.$mount() to manually start the compilation.

  • See also: Lifecycle Diagram

template

  • Type: String

  • Details:

    A string template to be used as the markup for the Vue instance. By default, the template will replace the mounted element. When the replace option is set to false, the template will be inserted into the mounted element instead. In both cases, any existing markup inside the mounted element will be ignored, unless content distribution slots are present in the template.

    If the string starts with # it will be used as a querySelector and use the selected element’s innerHTML as the template string. This allows the use of the common <script type="x-template"> trick to include templates.

    Note that under certain situations, for example when the template contains more than one top-level element, or contains only plain text, the instance will become a fragment instance - i.e. one that manages a list of nodes rather than a single node. Non flow-control directives on the mount point for fragment instances are ignored.

  • See also:

replace

  • Type: Boolean

  • Default: true

  • Restriction: only respected if the template option is also present.

  • Details:

    Determines whether to replace the element being mounted on with the template. If set to false, the template will overwrite the element’s inner content without replacing the element itself. If set to true, the template will overwrite the element and merge the element’s attributes with the attributes of the component’s root node.

  • Example:

    <div id="replace" class="foo"></div>
    new Vue({
      el: '#replace',
      template: '<p class="bar">replaced</p>'
    })

    Will result in:

    <p class="foo bar" id="replace">replaced</p>

    In comparison, when replace is set to false:

    <div id="insert" class="foo"></div>
    new Vue({
      el: '#insert',
      replace: false,
      template: '<p class="bar">inserted</p>'
    })

    Will result in:

    <div id="insert" class="foo">
      <p class="bar">inserted</p>
    </div>

Options / Lifecycle Hooks

init

  • Type: Function

  • Details:

    Called synchronously after the instance has just been initialized, before data observation and event / watcher setup.

  • See also: Lifecycle Diagram

created

  • Type: Function

  • Details:

    Called synchronously after the instance is created. At this stage, the instance has finished processing the options which means the following have been set up: data observation, computed properties, methods, watch/event callbacks. However, DOM compilation has not been started, and the $el property will not be available yet.

  • See also: Lifecycle Diagram

beforeCompile

  • Type: Function

  • Details:

    Called right before the compilation starts.

  • See also: Lifecycle Diagram

compiled

  • Type: Function

  • Details:

    Called after the compilation is finished. At this stage all directives have been linked so data changes will trigger DOM updates. However, $el is not guaranteed to have been inserted into the document yet.

  • See also: Lifecycle Diagram

activate

  • Type: Function

  • Arguments:

    • {Function} done
  • Details:

    Called after compilation is finished, right before the ready hook - but only during dynamic component swapping or in the initial render for static components. Unlike other lifecycle hooks, it accepts a done callback, which must be called for the rest of the lifecycle to complete. It’s most useful for performing some asynchronous operation before a component is swapped in, like fetching data from an API.

  • See also: Dynamic Components

ready

  • Type: Function

  • Details:

    Called after compilation and the $el is inserted into the document for the first time, i.e. right after the first attached hook. Note this insertion must be executed via Vue (with methods like vm.$appendTo() or as a result of a directive update) to trigger the ready hook.

  • See also: Lifecycle Diagram

attached

  • Type: Function

  • Details:

    Called when vm.$el is attached to DOM by a directive or a VM instance method such as $appendTo(). Direct manipulation of vm.$el will not trigger this hook.

detached

  • Type: Function

  • Details:

    Called when vm.$el is removed from the DOM by a directive or a VM instance method. Direct manipulation of vm.$el will not trigger this hook.

beforeDestroy

  • Type: Function

  • Details:

    Called right before a Vue instance is destroyed. At this stage the instance is still fully functional.

  • See also: Lifecycle Diagram

destroyed

  • Type: Function

  • Details:

    Called after a Vue instance has been destroyed. When this hook is called, all bindings and directives of the Vue instance have been unbound and all child Vue instances have also been destroyed.

    Note if there is a leaving transition, the destroyed hook is called after the transition has finished.

  • See also: Lifecycle Diagram

Options / Assets

directives

elementDirectives

filters

components

  • Type: Object

  • Details:

    A hash of components to be made available to the Vue instance.

  • See also:

transitions

  • Type: Object

  • Details:

    A hash of transitions to be made available to the Vue instance.

  • See also:

partials

Options / Misc

parent

  • Type: Vue instance

  • Details:

    Specify the parent instance for the instance to be created. Establishes a parent-child relationship between the two. The parent will be accessible as this.$parent for the child, and the child will be pushed into the parent’s $children array.

  • See also: Parent-Child Communication

events

  • Type: Object

  • Details:

    An object where keys are events to listen for and values are the corresponding callbacks. Note these are Vue events rather than DOM events. The value can also be a string of a method name. The Vue instance will call $on() for each entry in the object at instantiation.

  • Example:

    var vm = new Vue({
      events: {
        'hook:created': function () {
          console.log('created!')
        },
        greeting: function (msg) {
          console.log(msg)
        },
        // can also use a string for methods
        bye: 'sayGoodbye'
      },
      methods: {
        sayGoodbye: function () {
          console.log('goodbye!')
        }
      }
    }) // -> created!
    vm.$emit('greeting', 'hi!') // -> hi!
    vm.$emit('bye')             // -> goodbye!
  • See also:

mixins

  • Type: Array

  • Details:

    The mixins option accepts an array of mixin objects. These mixin objects can contain instance options just like normal instance objects, and they will be merged against the eventual options using the same option merging logic in Vue.extend(). e.g. If your mixin contains a created hook and the component itself also has one, both functions will be called.

    Mixin hooks are called in the order they are provided, and called before the component’s own hooks.

  • Example:

    var mixin = {
      created: function () { console.log(1) }
    }
    var vm = new Vue({
      created: function () { console.log(2) },
      mixins: [mixin]
    })
    // -> 1
    // -> 2
  • See also: Mixins

name

  • Type: String

  • Restriction: only respected when used in Vue.extend().

  • Details:

    Allow the component to recursively invoke itself in its template. Note that when a component is registered globally with Vue.component(), the global ID is automatically set as its name.

    Another benefit of specifying a name option is console inspection. When inspecting an extended Vue component in the console, the default constructor name is VueComponent, which isn’t very informative. By passing in an optional name option to Vue.extend(), you will get a better inspection output so that you know which component you are looking at. The string will be camelized and used as the component’s constructor name.

  • Example:

    var Ctor = Vue.extend({
      name: 'stack-overflow',
      template:
        '<div>' +
          // recursively invoke self
          '<stack-overflow></stack-overflow>' +
        '</div>'
    })
    
    // this will actually result in a max stack size exceeded
    // error, but let's assume it works...
    var vm = new Ctor()
    
    console.log(vm) // -> StackOverflow {$el: null, ...}

extends

1.0.22+

  • Type: Object | Function

  • Details:

    Allows declaratively extending another component (could be either a plain options object or a constructor) without having to use Vue.extend. This is primarily intended to make it easier to extend between single file components.

    This is similar to mixins, the difference being that the component’s own options takes higher priority than the source component being extended.

  • Example:

    var CompA = { ... }
    
    // extend CompA without having to call Vue.extend on either
    var CompB = {
      extends: CompA,
      ...
    }

Instance Properties

vm.$data

  • Type: Object

  • Details:

    The data object that the Vue instance is observing. You can swap it with a new object. The Vue instance proxies access to the properties on its data object.

vm.$el

  • Type: HTMLElement

  • Read only

  • Details:

    The DOM element that the Vue instance is managing. Note that for Fragment Instances, vm.$el will return an anchor node that indicates the starting position of the fragment.

vm.$options

  • Type: Object

  • Read only

  • Details:

    The instantiation options used for the current Vue instance. This is useful when you want to include custom properties in the options:

    new Vue({
      customOption: 'foo',
      created: function () {
        console.log(this.$options.customOption) // -> 'foo'
      }
    })

vm.$parent

  • Type: Vue instance

  • Read only

  • Details:

    The parent instance, if the current instance has one.

vm.$root

  • Type: Vue instance

  • Read only

  • Details:

    The root Vue instance of the current component tree. If the current instance has no parents this value will be itself.

vm.$children

  • Type: Array<Vue instance>

  • Read only

  • Details:

    The direct child components of the current instance.

vm.$refs

  • Type: Object

  • Read only

  • Details:

    An object that holds child components that have v-ref registered.

  • See also:

vm.$els

  • Type: Object

  • Read only

  • Details:

    An object that holds DOM elements that have v-el registered.

  • See also: v-el.

Instance Methods / Data

vm.$watch( expOrFn, callback, [options] )

  • Arguments:

    • {String | Function} expOrFn
    • {Function} callback
    • {Object} [options]
      • {Boolean} deep
      • {Boolean} immediate
  • Returns: {Function} unwatch

  • Usage:

    Watch an expression or a computed function on the Vue instance for changes. The callback gets called with the new value and the old value. The expression can be a single keypath or any valid binding expressions.

Note: when mutating (rather than replacing) an Object or an Array, the old value will be the same as new value because they reference the same Object/Array. Vue doesn’t keep a copy of the pre-mutate value.

  • Example:

    // keypath
    vm.$watch('a.b.c', function (newVal, oldVal) {
      // do something
    })
    
    // expression
    vm.$watch('a + b', function (newVal, oldVal) {
      // do something
    })
    
    // function
    vm.$watch(
      function () {
        return this.a + this.b
      },
      function (newVal, oldVal) {
        // do something
      }
    )

    vm.$watch returns an unwatch function that stops firing the callback:

    var unwatch = vm.$watch('a', cb)
    // later, teardown the watcher
    unwatch()
  • Option: deep

    To also detect nested value changes inside Objects, you need to pass in deep: true in the options argument. Note that you don’t need to do so to listen for Array mutations.

    vm.$watch('someObject', callback, {
      deep: true
    })
    vm.someObject.nestedValue = 123
    // callback is fired
  • Option: immediate

    Passing in immediate: true in the option will trigger the callback immediately with the current value of the expression:

    vm.$watch('a', callback, {
      immediate: true
    })
    // callback is fired immediately with current value of `a`

vm.$get( expression )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} expression
  • Usage:

    Retrieve a value from the Vue instance given an expression. Expressions that throw errors will be suppressed and return undefined.

  • Example:

    var vm = new Vue({
      data: {
        a: {
          b: 1
        }
      }
    })
    vm.$get('a.b') // -> 1
    vm.$get('a.b + 1') // -> 2

vm.$set( keypath, value )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} keypath
    • {*} value
  • Usage:

    Set a data value on the Vue instance given a valid keypath. In most cases you should prefer setting properties using plain object syntax, e.g. vm.a.b = 123. This method is only needed in two scenarios:

    1. When you have a keypath string and want to dynamically set the value using that keypath.

    2. When you want to set a property that doesn’t exist.

    If the path doesn’t exist it will be recursively created and made reactive. If a new root-level reactive property is created due to a $set call, the Vue instance will be forced into a “digest cycle”, during which all its watchers are re-evaluated.

  • Example:

    var vm = new Vue({
      data: {
        a: {
          b: 1
        }
      }
    })
    
    // set an existing path
    vm.$set('a.b', 2)
    vm.a.b // -> 2
    
    // set a non-existent path, will force digest
    vm.$set('c', 3)
    vm.c // -> 3
  • See also: Reactivity in Depth

vm.$delete( key )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} key
  • Usage:

    Delete a root level property on the Vue instance (and also its $data). Forces a digest cycle. Not recommended.

vm.$eval( expression )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} expression
  • Usage:

    Evaluate a valid binding expression on the current instance. The expression can also contain filters.

  • Example:

    // assuming vm.msg = 'hello'
    vm.$eval('msg | uppercase') // -> 'HELLO'

vm.$interpolate( templateString )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} templateString
  • Usage:

    Evaluate a piece of template string containing mustache interpolations. Note that this method simply performs string interpolation; attribute directives are ignored.

  • Example:

    // assuming vm.msg = 'hello'
    vm.$interpolate('{{msg}} world!') // -> 'hello world!'

vm.$log( [keypath] )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} [keypath]
  • Usage:

    Log the current instance data as a plain object, which is more inspection-friendly than a bunch of getter/setters. Also accepts an optional key.

    vm.$log() // logs entire ViewModel data
    vm.$log('item') // logs vm.item

Instance Methods / Events

vm.$on( event, callback )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} event
    • {Function} callback
  • Usage:

    Listen for a custom event on the current vm. Events can be triggered by vm.$emit, vm.$dispatch or vm.$broadcast. The callback will receive all the additional arguments passed into these event-triggering methods.

  • Example:

    vm.$on('test', function (msg) {
      console.log(msg)
    })
    vm.$emit('test', 'hi')
    // -> "hi"

vm.$once( event, callback )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} event
    • {Function} callback
  • Usage:

    Listen for a custom event, but only once. The listener will be removed once it triggers for the first time.

vm.$off( [event, callback] )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} [event]
    • {Function} [callback]
  • Usage:

    Remove event listener(s).

    • If no arguments are provided, remove all event listeners;

    • If only the event is provided, remove all listeners for that event;

    • If both event and callback are given, remove the listener for that specific callback only.

vm.$emit( event, […args] )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} event
    • [...args]

    Trigger an event on the current instance. Any additional arguments will be passed into the listener’s callback function.

vm.$dispatch( event, […args] )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} event
    • [...args]
  • Usage:

    Dispatch an event, first triggering it on the instance itself, and then propagates upward along the parent chain. The propagation stops when it triggers a parent event listener, unless that listener returns true. Any additional arguments will be passed into the listener’s callback function.

  • Example:

    // create a parent chain
    var parent = new Vue()
    var child1 = new Vue({ parent: parent })
    var child2 = new Vue({ parent: child1 })
    
    parent.$on('test', function () {
      console.log('parent notified')
    })
    child1.$on('test', function () {
      console.log('child1 notified')
    })
    child2.$on('test', function () {
      console.log('child2 notified')
    })
    
    child2.$dispatch('test')
    // -> "child2 notified"
    // -> "child1 notified"
    // parent is NOT notified, because child1 didn't return
    // true in its callback
  • See also: Parent-Child Communication

vm.$broadcast( event, […args] )

  • Arguments:

    • {String} event
    • [...args]
  • Usage:

    Broadcast an event that propagates downward to all descendants of the current instance. Since the descendants expand into multiple sub-trees, the event propagation will follow many different “paths”. The propagation for each path will stop when a listener callback is fired along that path, unless the callback returns true.

  • Example:

    var parent = new Vue()
    // child1 and child2 are siblings
    var child1 = new Vue({ parent: parent })
    var child2 = new Vue({ parent: parent })
    // child3 is nested under child2
    var child3 = new Vue({ parent: child2 })
    
    child1.$on('test', function () {
      console.log('child1 notified')
    })
    child2.$on('test', function () {
      console.log('child2 notified')
    })
    child3.$on('test', function () {
      console.log('child3 notified')
    })
    
    parent.$broadcast('test')
    // -> "child1 notified"
    // -> "child2 notified"
    // child3 is NOT notified, because child2 didn't return
    // true in its callback

Instance Methods / DOM

vm.$appendTo( elementOrSelector, [callback] )

  • Arguments:

    • {Element | String} elementOrSelector
    • {Function} [callback]
  • Returns: vm - the instance itself

  • Usage:

    Append the Vue instance’s DOM element or fragment to target element. The target can be either an element or a querySelector string. This method will trigger transitions if present. The callback is fired after the transition has completed (or immediately if no transition has been triggered).

vm.$before( elementOrSelector, [callback] )

  • Arguments:

    • {Element | String} elementOrSelector
    • {Function} [callback]
  • Returns: vm - the instance itself

  • Usage:

    Insert the Vue instance’s DOM element or fragment before target element. The target can be either an element or a querySelector string. This method will trigger transitions if present. The callback is fired after the transition has completed (or immediately if no transition has been triggered).

vm.$after( elementOrSelector, [callback] )

  • Arguments:

    • {Element | String} elementOrSelector
    • {Function} [callback]
  • Returns: vm - the instance itself

  • Usage:

    Insert the Vue instance’s DOM element or fragment after target element. The target can be either an element or a querySelector string. This method will trigger transitions if present. The callback is fired after the transition has completed (or immediately if no transition has been triggered).

vm.$remove( [callback] )

  • Arguments:

    • {Function} [callback]
  • Returns: vm - the instance itself

  • Usage:

    Remove the Vue instance’s DOM element or fragment from the DOM. This method will trigger transitions if present. The callback is fired after the transition has completed (or immediately if no transition has been triggered).

vm.$nextTick( callback )

  • Arguments:

    • {Function} [callback]
  • Usage:

    Defer the callback to be executed after the next DOM update cycle. Use it immediately after you’ve changed some data to wait for the DOM update. This is the same as the global Vue.nextTick, except that the callback’s this context is automatically bound to the instance calling this method.

  • Example:

    new Vue({
      // ...
      methods: {
        // ...
        example: function () {
          // modify data
          this.message = 'changed'
          // DOM is not updated yet
          this.$nextTick(function () {
            // DOM is now updated
            // `this` is bound to the current instance
            this.doSomethingElse()
          })
        }
      }
    })
  • See also:

Instance Methods / Lifecycle

vm.$mount( [elementOrSelector] )

  • Arguments:

    • {Element | String} [elementOrSelector]
  • Returns: vm - the instance itself

  • Usage:

    If a Vue instance didn’t receive the el option at instantiation, it will be in “unmounted” state, without an associated DOM element or fragment. vm.$mount() can be used to manually start the mounting/compilation of an unmounted Vue instance.

    If no argument is provided, the template will be created as an out-of-document fragment, and you will have to use other DOM instance methods to insert it into the document yourself. If replace option is set to false, then an empty <div> will be automatically created as the wrapper element.

    Calling $mount() on an already mounted instance will have no effect. The method returns the instance itself so you can chain other instance methods after it.

  • Example:

    var MyComponent = Vue.extend({
      template: '<div>Hello!</div>'
    })
    
    // create and mount to #app (will replace #app)
    new MyComponent().$mount('#app')
    
    // the above is the same as:
    new MyComponent({ el: '#app' })
    
    // or, compile off-document and append afterwards:
    new MyComponent().$mount().$appendTo('#container')
  • See also: Lifecycle Diagram

vm.$destroy( [remove] )

  • Arguments:

    • {Boolean} [remove] - default: false
  • Usage:

    Completely destroy a vm. Clean up its connections with other existing vms, unbind all its directives, turn off all event listeners and, if the remove argument is true, remove its associated DOM element or fragment from the DOM.

    Triggers the beforeDestroy and destroyed hooks.

  • See also: Lifecycle Diagram

Directives

v-text

  • Expects: String

  • Details:

    Updates the element’s textContent.

    Internally, {{ Mustache }} interpolations are also compiled as a v-text directive on a textNode. The directive form requires a wrapper element, but offers slightly better performance and avoids FOUC (Flash of Uncompiled Content).

  • Example:

    <span v-text="msg"></span>
    <!-- same as -->
    <span>{{msg}}</span>

v-html

  • Expects: String

  • Details:

    Updates the element’s innerHTML. The contents are inserted as plain HTML - data bindings are ignored. If you need to reuse template pieces, you should use partials.

    Internally, {{{ Mustache }}} interpolations are also compiled as a v-html directive using anchor nodes. The directive form requires a wrapper element, but offers slightly better performance and avoids FOUC (Flash of Uncompiled Content).

    Dynamically rendering arbitrary HTML on your website can be very dangerous because it can easily lead to XSS attacks. Only use v-html on trusted content and never on user-provided content.

  • Example:

    <div v-html="html"></div>
    <!-- same as -->
    <div>{{{html}}}</div>

v-if

  • Expects: *

  • Usage:

    Conditionally render the element based on the truthy-ness of the expression value. The element and its contained data bindings / components are destroyed and re-constructed during toggles. If the element is a <template> element, its content will be extracted as the conditional block.

  • See also: Conditional Rendering

v-show

  • Expects: *

  • Usage:

    Toggle’s the element’s display CSS property based on the truthy-ness of the expression value. Triggers transitions if present.

  • See also: Conditional Rendering - v-show

v-else

v-for

  • Expects: Array | Object | Number | String

  • Param Attributes:

  • Usage:

    Render the element or template block multiple times based on the source data. The directive’s value must use the special syntax alias (in|of) expression to provide an alias for the current element being iterated on:

    <div v-for="item in items">
      {{ item.text }}
    </div>

    Note using of as the delimiter is only supported in 1.0.17+.

    Alternatively, you can also specify an alias for the index (or the key if used on an Object):

    <div v-for="(index, item) in items"></div>
    <div v-for="(key, val) in object"></div>

    The detailed usage for v-for is explained in the guide section linked below.

  • See also: List Rendering.

v-on

  • Shorthand: @

  • Expects: Function | Inline Statement

  • Argument: event (required)

  • Modifiers:

    • .stop - call event.stopPropagation().
    • .prevent - call event.preventDefault().
    • .capture - add event listener in capture mode.
    • .self - only trigger handler if event was dispatched from this element.
    • .{keyCode | keyAlias} - only trigger handler on certain keys.
  • Usage:

    Attaches an event listener to the element. The event type is denoted by the argument. The expression can either be a method name or an inline statement, or simply omitted when there are modifiers present.

    When used on a normal element, it listens to native DOM events only. When used on a custom element component, it also listens to custom events emitted on that child component.

    When listening to native DOM events, the method receives the native event as the only argument. If using inline statement, the statement has access to the special $event property: v-on:click="handle('ok', $event)".

    1.0.11+ When listening the custom events, inline statements have access to the special $arguments property, which is an array of the additional arguments passed to the child components’ $emit call.

  • Example:

    <!-- method handler -->
    <button v-on:click="doThis"></button>
    
    <!-- inline statement -->
    <button v-on:click="doThat('hello', $event)"></button>
    
    <!-- shorthand -->
    <button @click="doThis"></button>
    
    <!-- stop propagation -->
    <button @click.stop="doThis"></button>
    
    <!-- prevent default -->
    <button @click.prevent="doThis"></button>
    
    <!-- prevent default without expression -->
    <form @submit.prevent></form>
    
    <!-- chain modifiers -->
    <button @click.stop.prevent="doThis"></button>
    
    <!-- key modifier using keyAlias -->
    <input @keyup.enter="onEnter">
    
    <!-- key modifier using keyCode -->
    <input @keyup.13="onEnter">

    Listening to custom events on a child component (the handler is called when “my-event” is emitted on the child):

    <my-component @my-event="handleThis"></my-component>
    
    <!-- inline statement -->
    <my-component @my-event="handleThis(123, $arguments)"></my-component>
  • See also: Methods and Event Handling

v-bind

  • Shorthand: :

  • Expects: * (with argument) | Object (without argument)

  • Argument: attrOrProp (optional)

  • Modifiers:

    • .sync - make the binding two-way. Only respected for prop bindings.
    • .once - make the binding one-time. Only respected for prop bindings.
    • .camel - convert the attribute name to camelCase when setting it. Only respected for normal attributes. Used for binding camelCase SVG attributes.
  • Usage:

    Dynamically bind one or more attributes, or a component prop to an expression.

    When used to bind the class or style attribute, it supports additional value types such as Array or Objects. See linked guide section below for more details.

    When used for prop binding, the prop must be properly declared in the child component. Prop bindings can specify a different binding type using one of the modifiers.

    When used without an argument, can be used to bind an object containing attribute name-value pairs. Note in this mode class and style does not support Array or Objects.

  • Example:

    <!-- bind an attribute -->
    <img v-bind:src="imageSrc">
    
    <!-- shorthand -->
    <img :src="imageSrc">
    
    <!-- class binding -->
    <div :class="{ red: isRed }"></div>
    <div :class="[classA, classB]"></div>
    <div :class="[classA, { classB: isB, classC: isC }]">
    
    <!-- style binding -->
    <div :style="{ fontSize: size + 'px' }"></div>
    <div :style="[styleObjectA, styleObjectB]"></div>
    
    <!-- binding an object of attributes -->
    <div v-bind="{ id: someProp, 'other-attr': otherProp }"></div>
    
    <!-- prop binding. "prop" must be declared in my-component. -->
    <my-component :prop="someThing"></my-component>
    
    <!-- two-way prop binding -->
    <my-component :prop.sync="someThing"></my-component>
    
    <!-- one-time prop binding -->
    <my-component :prop.once="someThing"></my-component>
  • See also:

v-model

  • Expects: varies based on input type

  • Limited to:

    • <input>
    • <select>
    • <textarea>
  • Param Attributes:

  • Usage:

    Create a two-way binding on a form input element. For detailed usage, see guide section linked below.

  • See also: Form Input Bindings

v-ref

  • Does not expect expression

  • Limited to: child components

  • Argument: id (required)

  • Usage:

    Register a reference to a child component on its parent for direct access. Does not expect an expression. Must provide an argument as the id to register with. The component instance will be accessible on its parent’s $refs object.

    When used on a component together with v-for, the registered value will be an Array containing all the child component instances corresponding to the Array they are bound to. If the data source for v-for is an Object, the registered value will be an Object containing key-instance pairs mirroring the source Object.

  • Note:

    Because HTML is case-insensitive, camelCase usage like v-ref:someRef will be converted to all lowercase. You can use v-ref:some-ref which properly sets this.$refs.someRef.

  • Example:

    <comp v-ref:child></comp>
    <comp v-ref:some-child></comp>
    // access from parent:
    this.$refs.child
    this.$refs.someChild

    With v-for:

    <comp v-ref:list v-for="item in list"></comp>
    // this will be an array in parent
    this.$refs.list
  • See also: Child Component Refs

v-el

  • Does not expect expression

  • Argument: id (required)

  • Usage:

    Register a reference to a DOM element on its owner Vue instance’s $els object for easier access.

  • Note:

    Because HTML is case-insensitive, camelCase usage like v-el:someEl will be converted to all lowercase. You can use v-el:some-el which properly sets this.$els.someEl.

  • Example:

    <span v-el:msg>hello</span>
    <span v-el:other-msg>world</span>
    this.$els.msg.textContent // -> "hello"
    this.$els.otherMsg.textContent // -> "world"

v-pre

  • Does not expect expression

  • Usage

    Skip compilation for this element and all its children. You can use this for displaying raw mustache tags. Skipping large numbers of nodes with no directives on them can also speed up compilation.

  • Example:

    <span v-pre>{{ this will not be compiled }}</span>

v-cloak

  • Does not expect expression

  • Usage:

    This directive will remain on the element until the associated Vue instance finishes compilation. Combined with CSS rules such as [v-cloak] { display: none }, this directive can be used to hide un-compiled mustache bindings until the Vue instance is ready.

  • Example:

    [v-cloak] {
      display: none;
    }
    <div v-cloak>
      {{ message }}
    </div>

    The <div> will not be visible until the compilation is done.

Special Elements

component

  • Attributes:

    • is
  • Param Attributes:

  • Usage:

    Alternative syntax for invoking components. Primarily used for dynamic components with the is attribute:

    <!-- a dynamic component controlled by -->
    <!-- the `componentId` property on the vm -->
    <component :is="componentId"></component>
  • See also: Dynamic Components

slot

  • Attributes:

    • name
  • Usage:

    <slot> elements serve as content distribution outlets in component templates. The slot element itself will be replaced.

    A slot with the name attribute is called a named slot. A named slot will distribute content with a slot attribute that matches its name.

    For detailed usage, see the guide section linked below.

  • See also: Content Distribution with Slots

partial

  • Attributes:

    • name
  • Usage:

    <partial> elements serve as outlets for registered template partials. Partial contents are also compiled by Vue when inserted. The <partial> element itself will be replaced. It requires a name attribute which will be used to resolve the partial’s content.

  • Example:

    // registering a partial
    Vue.partial('my-partial', '<p>This is a partial! {{msg}}</p>')
    <!-- a static partial -->
    <partial name="my-partial"></partial>
    
    <!-- a dynamic partial -->
    <!-- renders partial with id === vm.partialId -->
    <partial v-bind:name="partialId"></partial>
    
    <!-- dynamic partial using v-bind shorthand -->
    <partial :name="partialId"></partial>

Filters

capitalize

  • Example:

    {{ msg | capitalize }}

    ‘abc’ => ‘Abc’

uppercase

  • Example:

    {{ msg | uppercase }}

    ‘abc’ => ‘ABC’

lowercase

  • Example:

    {{ msg | lowercase }}

    ‘ABC’ => ‘abc’

currency

  • Arguments:

    • {String} [symbol] - default: '$'
    • 1.0.22+ {Number} [decimal places] - default: 2
  • Example:

    {{ amount | currency }}

    12345 => $12,345.00

    Use a different symbol:

    {{ amount | currency '£' }}

    12345 => £12,345.00

    Some currencies have 3 or 4 decimal places, while some others have none, for example Japanese Yen (¥) or Vietnamese Dong (₫):

    {{ amount | currency '₫' 0 }}

    12345 => ₫12,345

pluralize

  • Arguments:

    • {String} single, [double, triple, ...]
  • Usage:

    Pluralizes the argument based on the filtered value. When there is exactly one argument, plural forms simply add an “s” at the end. When there are more than one argument, the arguments will be used as array of strings corresponding to the single, double, triple … forms of the word to be pluralized. When the number to be pluralized exceeds the length of the arguments, it will use the last entry in the array.

  • Example:

    {{count}} {{count | pluralize 'item'}}

    1 => ‘1 item’
    2 => ‘2 items’

    {{date}}{{date | pluralize 'st' 'nd' 'rd' 'th'}}

    Will result in:

    1 => ‘1st’
    2 => ‘2nd’
    3 => ‘3rd’
    4 => ‘4th’
    5 => ‘5th’

json

  • Arguments:

    • {Number} [indent] - default: 2
  • Usage:

    Output the result of calling JSON.stringify() on the value instead of outputting the toString() value (e.g. [object Object]).

  • Example:

    Print an object with 4-space indent:

    <pre>{{ nestedObject | json 4 }}</pre>

debounce

  • Limited to: directives that expect Function values, e.g. v-on

  • Arguments:

    • {Number} [wait] - default: 300
  • Usage:

    Wrap the handler to debounce it for x milliseconds, where x is the argument. Default wait time is 300ms. A debounced handler will be delayed until at least x ms has passed after the call moment; if the handler is called again before the delay period, the delay period is reset to x ms.

  • Example:

    <input @keyup="onKeyup | debounce 500">

limitBy

  • Limited to: directives that expect Array values, e.g. v-for

  • Arguments:

    • {Number} limit
    • {Number} [offset]
  • Usage:

    Limit the array to the first N items, as specified by the argument. An optional second argument can be provided to set a starting offset.

    <!-- only display first 10 items -->
    <div v-for="item in items | limitBy 10"></div>
    
    <!-- display items 5 to 15 -->
    <div v-for="item in items | limitBy 10 5"></div>

filterBy

  • Limited to: directives that expect Array values, e.g. v-for

  • Arguments:

    • {String | Function} targetStringOrFunction
    • "in" (optional delimiter)
    • {String} [...searchKeys]
  • Usage:

    Return a filtered version of the source Array. The first argument can either be a string or a function.

    When the first argument is a string, it will be used as the target string to search for in each element of the Array:

    <div v-for="item in items | filterBy 'hello'">

    In the above example, only items that contain the target string "hello" will be displayed.

    If the item is an object, the filter will recursively search every nested property of the object for the target string. To narrow down the search scope, additional search keys can be specified:

    <div v-for="user in users | filterBy 'Jack' in 'name'">

    In the above example, the filter will only search for "Jack" in the name field of each user object. It is a good idea to always limit the search scope for better performance.

    The examples above are using static arguments - we can, of course, use dynamic arguments as target string or search keys. Combined with v-model we can easily implement type-ahead filtering:

    <div id="filter-by-example">
      <input v-model="name">
      <ul>
        <li v-for="user in users | filterBy name in 'name'">
          {{ user.name }}
        </li>
      </ul>
    </div>
    new Vue({
      el: '#filter-by-example',
      data: {
        name: '',
        users: [
          { name: 'Bruce' },
          { name: 'Chuck' },
          { name: 'Jackie' }
        ]
      }
    })
  • Additional Examples:

    Multiple search keys:

    <li v-for="user in users | filterBy searchText in 'name' 'phone'"></li>

    Multiple search keys with a dynamic Array argument:

    <!-- fields = ['fieldA', 'fieldB'] -->
    <div v-for="user in users | filterBy searchText in fields">

    Use a custom filter function:

    <div v-for="user in users | filterBy myCustomFilterFunction">

orderBy

  • Limited to: directives that expect Array values, e.g. v-for

  • Arguments:

    • {String | Array<String> | Function} ...sortKeys
    • {String} [order] - default: 1
  • Usage:

    Return a sorted version of the source Array. You can pass any number of Strings to sort on keys. You can also pass an array containing the sorting keys or a Function if you want to use your own sorting strategy instead. The optional order argument specifies whether the result should be in ascending (order >= 0) or descending (order < 0) order.

    For arrays of primitive values, simply omit sortKeys and provide the order, e.g. orderBy 1.

  • Example:

    Sort users by name:

    <ul>
      <li v-for="user in users | orderBy 'name'">
        {{ user.name }}
      </li>
    </ul>

    In descending order:

    <ul>
      <li v-for="user in users | orderBy 'name' -1">
        {{ user.name }}
      </li>
    </ul>

    Sort primitive values:

    <ul>
      <li v-for="n in numbers | orderBy true">
        {{ n }}
      </li>
    </ul>

    Dynamic sort order:

    <div id="orderby-example">
      <button @click="order = order * -1">Reverse Sort Order</button>
      <ul>
        <li v-for="user in users | orderBy 'name' order">
          {{ user.name }}
        </li>
      </ul>
    </div>
    new Vue({
      el: '#orderby-example',
      data: {
        order: 1,
        users: [{ name: 'Bruce' }, { name: 'Chuck' }, { name: 'Jackie' }]
      }
    })

    Sort using two keys:

    <ul>
      <li v-for="user in users | orderBy 'lastName' 'firstName'">
        {{ user.lastName }} {{ user.firstName }}
      </li>
    </ul>

    Sort using a Function:

    <div id="orderby-compare-example" class="demo">
      <button @click="order = order * -1">Reverse Sort Order</button>
      <ul>
        <li v-for="user in users | orderBy ageByTen order">
          {{ user.name }} - {{ user.age }}
        </li>
      </ul>
    </div>
    new Vue({
      el: '#orderby-compare-example',
      data: {
        order: 1,
        users: [
          {
            name: 'Jackie',
            age: 62
          },
          {
            name: 'Chuck',
            age: 76
          },
          {
            name: 'Bruce',
            age: 61
          }
        ]
      },
      methods: {
        ageByTen: function (a, b) {
          return Math.floor(a.age / 10) - Math.floor(b.age / 10)
        }
      }
    })

Array Extension Methods

Vue.js extends Array.prototype with two additional methods that makes it easier to perform some common Array operations while ensuring reactive updates are properly triggered.

array.$set(index, value)

  • Arguments

    • {Number} index
    • {*} value
  • Usage

    Set an element in the array to a value by index and trigger view updates.

    vm.animals.$set(0, { name: 'Aardvark' })
  • See also: Array Detection Caveats

array.$remove(reference)

  • Arguments

    • {Reference} reference
  • Usage

    Remove an element from an array by reference and trigger view updates. This is a sugar method for first searching for the element in the array, and then if found, calling array.splice(index, 1).

    var aardvark = vm.animals[0]
    vm.animals.$remove(aardvark)
  • See also: Mutation Methods

© 2013–2017 Evan You, Vue.js contributors
Licensed under the MIT License.
https://v1.vuejs.org/api/index.html