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angularjs 1.4


Improve this Doc View Source $rootScope.Scope

  1. type in module ng

A root scope can be retrieved using the $rootScope key from the $injector. Child scopes are created using the $new() method. (Most scopes are created automatically when compiled HTML template is executed.) See also the Scopes guide for an in-depth introduction and usage examples.


A scope can inherit from a parent scope, as in this example:

var parent = $rootScope;
var child = parent.$new();

parent.salutation = "Hello";

child.salutation = "Welcome";

When interacting with Scope in tests, additional helper methods are available on the instances of Scope type. See ngMock Scope for additional details.


$rootScope.Scope([providers], [instanceCache]);


Param Type Details
Object.<string, function()>=

Map of service factory which need to be provided for the current scope. Defaults to ng.

Object.<string, *>=

Provides pre-instantiated services which should append/override services provided by providers. This is handy when unit-testing and having the need to override a default service.



Newly created scope.


  • $new(isolate, parent);

    Creates a new child scope.

    The parent scope will propagate the $digest() event. The scope can be removed from the scope hierarchy using $destroy().

    $destroy() must be called on a scope when it is desired for the scope and its child scopes to be permanently detached from the parent and thus stop participating in model change detection and listener notification by invoking.


    Param Type Details
    isolate boolean

    If true, then the scope does not prototypically inherit from the parent scope. The scope is isolated, as it can not see parent scope properties. When creating widgets, it is useful for the widget to not accidentally read parent state.


    The Scope that will be the $parent of the newly created scope. Defaults to this scope if not provided. This is used when creating a transclude scope to correctly place it in the scope hierarchy while maintaining the correct prototypical inheritance.

    (default: this)



    The newly created child scope.

  • $watch(watchExpression, listener, [objectEquality]);

    Registers a listener callback to be executed whenever the watchExpression changes.

    • The watchExpression is called on every call to $digest() and should return the value that will be watched. (watchExpression should not change its value when executed multiple times with the same input because it may be executed multiple times by $digest(). That is, watchExpression should be idempotent.
    • The listener is called only when the value from the current watchExpression and the previous call to watchExpression are not equal (with the exception of the initial run, see below). Inequality is determined according to reference inequality, strict comparison via the !== Javascript operator, unless objectEquality == true (see next point)
    • When objectEquality == true, inequality of the watchExpression is determined according to the angular.equals function. To save the value of the object for later comparison, the angular.copy function is used. This therefore means that watching complex objects will have adverse memory and performance implications.
    • The watch listener may change the model, which may trigger other listeners to fire. This is achieved by rerunning the watchers until no changes are detected. The rerun iteration limit is 10 to prevent an infinite loop deadlock.

    If you want to be notified whenever $digest is called, you can register a watchExpression function with no listener. (Be prepared for multiple calls to your watchExpression because it will execute multiple times in a single $digest cycle if a change is detected.)

    After a watcher is registered with the scope, the listener fn is called asynchronously (via $evalAsync) to initialize the watcher. In rare cases, this is undesirable because the listener is called when the result of watchExpression didn't change. To detect this scenario within the listener fn, you can compare the newVal and oldVal. If these two values are identical (===) then the listener was called due to initialization.

    // let's assume that scope was dependency injected as the $rootScope
    var scope = $rootScope; = 'misko';
    scope.counter = 0;
    scope.$watch('name', function(newValue, oldValue) {
      scope.counter = scope.counter + 1;
    // the listener is always called during the first $digest loop after it was registered
    // but now it will not be called unless the value changes
    expect(scope.counter).toEqual(1); = 'adam';
    // Using a function as a watchExpression
    var food;
    scope.foodCounter = 0;
      // This function returns the value being watched. It is called for each turn of the $digest loop
      function() { return food; },
      // This is the change listener, called when the value returned from the above function changes
      function(newValue, oldValue) {
        if ( newValue !== oldValue ) {
          // Only increment the counter if the value changed
          scope.foodCounter = scope.foodCounter + 1;
    // No digest has been run so the counter will be zero
    // Run the digest but since food has not changed count will still be zero
    // Update food and run digest.  Now the counter will increment
    food = 'cheeseburger';


    Param Type Details
    watchExpression function()string

    Expression that is evaluated on each $digest cycle. A change in the return value triggers a call to the listener.

    • string: Evaluated as expression
    • function(scope): called with current scope as a parameter.
    listener function(newVal, oldVal, scope)

    Callback called whenever the value of watchExpression changes.

    • newVal contains the current value of the watchExpression
    • oldVal contains the previous value of the watchExpression
    • scope refers to the current scope

    Compare for object equality using angular.equals instead of comparing for reference equality.



    Returns a deregistration function for this listener.

  • $watchGroup(watchExpressions, listener);

    A variant of $watch() where it watches an array of watchExpressions. If any one expression in the collection changes the listener is executed.

    • The items in the watchExpressions array are observed via standard $watch operation and are examined on every call to $digest() to see if any items changes.
    • The listener is called whenever any expression in the watchExpressions array changes.


    Param Type Details
    watchExpressions Array.<string|Function(scope)>

    Array of expressions that will be individually watched using $watch()

    listener function(newValues, oldValues, scope)

    Callback called whenever the return value of any expression in watchExpressions changes The newValues array contains the current values of the watchExpressions, with the indexes matching those of watchExpression and the oldValues array contains the previous values of the watchExpressions, with the indexes matching those of watchExpression The scope refers to the current scope.



    Returns a de-registration function for all listeners.

  • $watchCollection(obj, listener);

    Shallow watches the properties of an object and fires whenever any of the properties change (for arrays, this implies watching the array items; for object maps, this implies watching the properties). If a change is detected, the listener callback is fired.

    • The obj collection is observed via standard $watch operation and is examined on every call to $digest() to see if any items have been added, removed, or moved.
    • The listener is called whenever anything within the obj has changed. Examples include adding, removing, and moving items belonging to an object or array.
    $scope.names = ['igor', 'matias', 'misko', 'james'];
    $scope.dataCount = 4;
    $scope.$watchCollection('names', function(newNames, oldNames) {
      $scope.dataCount = newNames.length;
    //still at 4 ... no changes
    //now there's been a change


    Param Type Details
    obj stringfunction(scope)

    Evaluated as expression. The expression value should evaluate